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|Catalog No.||6400||Similar Items|
|Brief Description||A letter from Henryk Wolinski to Berl Mark, describing the activities of the Armia Krajowa||Similar Items|
|Registry No.||28433ר"מ||Similar Items|
|Donor||Rubin Arnon||Similar Items|
|File name||מכתב שכתב הנריק וולינסקי אל ברל מארק, ובו תיאור פעילותו ב"ארמיה קריובה"||Similar Items|
|Collection||Berman Adolf - Avraham||Similar Items|
|Period||During World War II||Similar Items|
|From Date||01/02/1942||Similar Items|
|Author||Wolinski Henryk||Similar Items|
|Date of event||26/03/1957||Similar Items|
|databank||Collections Section||Similar Items|
From the Adolf - Abraham Berman collection:
A letter sent by Henryk Wolinski, who during WWII headed the Jewish Affairs section of the Polish underground Armia Krajowa (AK, Homeland Army) to the historian Berl - Bernard Mark of the Jewish Historical Institute (ZIH; Zydowski Institut Historyczny) in Warsaw, in which he describes underground activity during the wartime period. The letter was sent from Katowice on March 26, 1957. Five pages, typewritten copy, in Polish.
Wolinski, whose underground names were Waclaw, Wieslaw, and Zakrzewski, replies to some 12 questions sent to him by Mark in a letter dated Jan. 29, 1957, and provides information on the activities of the underground during the wartime period. Wolinski explains his agreeing in Feb. 1942 in response to a request from Ludwik Widerszal, known as Pisarczyk or Krysinski, a member of the Jewish Affairs section of the Union for Armed Struggle (Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej; ZWZ)* to head the Jewish subsection of the Bureau for Information and Propaganda (Biuro Informacji i Propagandy; BIP) in the Information Department of the AK’s High Command (Komendantura Glowna; KG) in the Polish underground. Wolinski notes that his wife acted as his right hand in underground activities. He himself reported to Stanislaw Herbst, known as Chrobot and Wilhelm, head of the section of National Minorities, and the two of them reported to BIP chief Jerzy Makowiecki, known as Malicki or Tomasz.
Wolinski testifies that he was not conscripted to the Polish uprising and that on Aug. 12, 1944 he was expelled from Warsaw and went to Milanowek, from whence he made contact with his organization and members of the Jewish Fighting Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa) in Grodzisk, although did not succeed in obtaining help for the group in the Zoliboz quarter; Alina Margulis, later married to Marek Edelman, is the one who aided the group. From there he went on to Krakow and was there in December 1944, and afterwards went to Rabka.
Wolinski notes his working relationship (from Sept. 1942 onward) with Aleksander Kaminski, known as Gorecki; with Bund representative Leon Feiner, known as Mikolaj; with ZOB representative Arie Wilner, known as Jurek; with the man known as Zygmund until his death, with Yitzhak “Antek” Zukerman after that; and with Adolf Berman, known as Borowski.
Wolinski states that Jurek’s arrest hampered the initial presence of Antoni Chrusciel, known as Monter or Konar, commander of the AK in the Warsaw District, from extending military aid to the ghetto. With that, About that and the order issued by Chrusciel and Mordechai Anielewicz after the outbreak of the [ghetto] uprising, Wolinski prefers to discuss in person. Wolinski used his influence with the “Delegat,” the local representative of the Polish government - in - exile (Delegatura Rzadu; DR), to set up a Council for Aid to Jews (Rada Pomocy Zydom), known by its code name Zegota. To defend those in hiding, he collaborated with Stefan Korbonski, known as Zielinski, an AK operative.
The first transfer of funds, in the amount of 5,000 dollars, from Artur Zygelbojm in London to Leon Feiner in Warsaw, arrived via an airlifted courier of the ZWZ. The first detailed report of the liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto was writen by Wolinski and Herbst and published in London at Christmas 1943. In December 1942, Wolinski writes, some ten handguns were transferred to the ghetto, and Chrusciel, along with a military representation from the ghetto, determined points of resistance within the ghetto and points of Polish support from without. Wolinski assesses that this organized resistance resulted in the cancellation of the plan to liquidate the ghetto in January 1943. According to him. According to Wolinski, Polish underground fighting beside the ghetto walls lasted some ten days. In a last operation, some 200 people were taken out of the ghetto, some of whom were transferred to the Wyszkow Forest. These actions were in Chrusciel’s plans and undertaken with the knowledge of the AK High Command. As for Ketling [full name not indicated], he was interested in making contact with Wolinski, but did not happen primarly due to the Polish side’s reservations about K.; Wolinski met him only after the war. Wolinski states that his contacts with Jurek Wilner and with Antek touched upon military matters, while the contact with Berman revolved around providing aid to those in hiding [on the “Aryan” side] and inmates in camps. He does not know the identity of “Jurek II” from Panska. Wolinski transferred money that was airdropped by Zegota and also dealt with allocating stipends (500 - 750 zloty per person) along with his comrades in the department. (In 1944 there were some two hundred individuals listed as receiving support.)
In closing, Wolinski declares that it was his honor to represent to his organization the troubles of the individuals and the [Jewish] people who were imprisoned behind walls, and later behind barbed wire. He expresses sorrow at the death of Batya Temkin - Berman, of which he learned only recently, and recalls the meetings with her during the period when Berman was in hiding after the incident of his arrest after having been informed on [in early January 1944].
* The military arm of Polska Podziemna, that is, of the Polish Secret State. It was later called the Armia Krajowa. Close