|Catalog No.||5966||Similar Items|
|Brief Description||Henryk Wolinski: 24 reports (Nov. 1943 - June 1944)||Similar Items|
|Registry No.||23192ר"מ||Similar Items|
|Donor||Berman Adolf - Abraham||Similar Items|
|File name||Wolinski H||Similar Items|
|Collection||Berman Adolf - Avraham||Similar Items|
|Berman Index||ברמן - וולינסקי||Similar Items|
|Period||During World War II||Similar Items|
|From Date||08/11/1943||Similar Items|
|To Date||13/06/1944||Similar Items|
|Author||Wolinski Henryk||Similar Items|
|Date of event||08/11/1943||Similar Items|
|Date of event||17/11/1943||Similar Items|
|Date of event||24/11/1943||Similar Items|
|Date of event||27/11/1943||Similar Items|
|Date of event||20/12/1943||Similar Items|
|Date of event||22/12/1943||Similar Items|
|Date of event||03/01/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||11/01/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||25/01/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||07/02/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||22/02/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||07/03/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||21/03/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||01/04/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||27/04/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||11/05/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||22/05/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||30/05/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||06/06/1944||Similar Items|
|Date of event||13/06/1944||Similar Items|
|databank||Collections Section||Similar Items|
From the Adolf - Abraham Berman collection:
24 detailed and up - to - date reports on the situation of the Jews in Poland as of November 1943 throught June 1944, written by Waclaw (underground alias of Henryk Wolinski), head of the section for Jewish affairs of the AK (Armia Krajowa; Homeland Army) Polish underground. 67 pages, handwritten and typed, in Polish.
1) November 8, 1943* [Report No. 24,** originally listed as Holdings Registry File No. 20296)
Wolinski describes the liquidation of the Vilnius (Vilna) ghetto, that encountered active and passive resistance, and quotes news from the newspaper, “Niepodleglosc [Independence] 32” about bands of Jews in the Vilna district carrying out acts of robbery and murder in Bystryzca, Jaszun [Jasiunai], and on the Vilna - Mejszagela [Maisigala] road.
He notes easing [of conditions] in the Zmerynca [possibly Zhmerinka, Ukraine] ghetto in the area of the occupied Romanian territory. According to W., 2,000 Jews (out of 7,219) from the Janowska camp in Lvov were exterminated in October 1943.
On November 4, 1943, in Zawadow/Zawadizki, situated between Hrubieszow and Zamosc, the Germans shot large numbers of Jews who had been brought there from [camps in the] Lublin [area] and from the Trawniki camp after those camps’ liquidation and the murder of thousands of their inmates.
1*) The source document gives the date October 8, 1943, although from the report it appears that the report was written in early November (apparently November 8, 1943).
1**) According to the archival numbering marked in pencil on each report.
2) After November 8, 1943 [Report No. 22; Source: Holdings Registry file No. 20294]
Lublin region: Wolinski describes the Trawniki camp’s liquidation on November 3, 1943, and the murder of 10, 000 inmates after the Germans, under the command of Bartecko, [caused] their alertness [to become] dulled. 150 Jews who were brought from Lublin burned the bodies, then were themselves murdered.
The Poniatowa camp was liquidated on November 8, 1943, with 15,000 inmates; the previous evening the camp and surrounding area were encircled by units of SS and SD troops and gendarmerie who came in from Krasnik, Pulawy, and Naleczow. Before its arrival, the unit coming from Naleczow murdered a group of Jewish workers there. The inmates of the first barracks resisted, and the barracks building was torched with them inside. The remainder of the inmates were shot to death, though not before Jewish fighters [of the camp’s underground] set fire to all the workshops and warehouses. After the killings, the bodies of the dead and wounded were thrown into pits and set afire. In the two liquidations, the Ukrainians were kept away from the scene.
On the fifth of November, 15,000 inmates of the Lublin camps were exterminated in Majdanek, at the air field, and in other locations.
Krakow:* Wolinski writes about the Jews in hiding in Krakow (10,000 - 15, 000) and its surroundings. He reports that on September 15, 1943, an entire group who worked paving the Podgorze road, 56 individuals, were killed in the Plaszow camp for smuggling food. The next day, 27 Jews were murdered in the Montelupich Prison. As a punishment in reprisal for the escape of two young people from the camp (September 20), the Germans put 57 people to death. On September 19, forty - seven Jews who worked in a place called Bauhof were shot for not being listed in Plaszow as required.
Following the liquidation of the Bochnia ghetto, Jews were killed who had been in hiding and had believed the promise that they would not be harmed if they reported for deportation to a labor camp in Szobniki.
In Bedzin and Sosnowiec, 500 and 200 people (respectively) remain; they are slated for exterminated.
The liquidation of the Tarnow ghetto met with armed resistance; hundreds [of ghetto residents] were shot on the spot.
In the Krakow area and other locations, Jewish gravestones are being used for paving.
Czestochowa: close to 500 Jews are employed by the HASAG concern in loading construction materials. At the construction site on Jasnogorska Street there’s a mass grave of 2,000 Jews.
Radom: the ghetto, with its 2,500 inhabitants, has been relocated to Szkolna Street.
Lvov: at the end of October, 2,000 Jews were exterminated there.
Recently Jews were murdered in Stryy and in Jezierna (Ozeryany). The bodies of hundreds of the victims in Jezierna were set afire.
Wagoners transporting bricks from the area where the Warsaw ghetto had stood reported [cases of] death from starvation and exhaustion among Greek Jews loading bricks. The wagoners let them eat the animals’ fodder and stole bread for them.
Minsk: On October 20 - 25, 1943, the Jews of Minsk and all the Jews of Belorussia and its ghettos were murdered without [reported cases of] resistance.
The Vittel branch of the Bergen camp near Hannover has apparently been liquidated; 4,000 people were murdered.
Armed companies of the “Miecza I Pluga” [Polish: sword and plow] are massacring Jews in the Garwolin district.
2*) [in the original:] “Not for publication.”
3) November 17, 1943 [Report No. 1,* Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 20255]
In mid - October, Jews destroyed the Sobibor camp and escaped to the forests.
Recently in [the] Auschwitz [camp], 30,000 Jews from the Zaglebie region were murdered.
On October 25 - 26, 1943, 11 people from the Siedlce district were executed.
In Wegrow, Siedlce, and Stoczek, armed gangs of Jews are carrying out raids. German gendarmes there are executing many of [these Jews].
The Jewish camp of Treblinka has been dismantled, and Treblinka has become a sorting station for [used] clothing.
The Kochanow camp near Debica - Tarnowska is still in existence.
In Rad. the small ghetto was liquidated.
3*) According to the archival numbering marked in pencil on each report; in the original: Warsaw, Report No. 5. 4) November 24, 1943 [Report No. 2; Source filed as Holdings Registry file No. 20255.]
The Krolewska Huta [Chorzow], Trzebinia, Myslowice, Katowice, and Wadowice labor camps: Every week in the Krolewska Huta labor camp some hundred people die of hard work in the mines. In the Myslowice camp, thousands of Jews from the Generalgouvernement are interned. In the remainder of the camps, Jews from the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Hungary live in harsh conditions. Mortality rates are high and there are many cases of suicide, including mass suicides.
Every Sabbath [i.e., Saturday], 50 Jews from Sosnowiec are sent to [the] Auschwitz [camp]. In order to fill the death quotas, day - old infants are sent in sacks. *
Lvov: On October 24 - 26, 4,000 Jews (out of 6,000) were murdered in the Janowska camp; the men were killed at the Leszenice dunes, the women and children in the direction of Zimna Woda.
In the Garwolin district, the Jews M. and P. were exterminated. Wolinski notes the names of 14 German hangmen [i.e., executioners], several from Lublin, Lvov, and Krakow, responsible for exterminating Jews.
4*) Radio “Swit,” date: November 17.
5) Nov. 27, 1943 [Report No. 23, Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 20295] *
According to Wolinski, each day the labor camps execute 10 - 50 people, recently mainly in the Plaszow camp, along with the systematic liquidation of these camps. In late August and throughout September, the Bialystok ghetto was liquidated and 30,000 Jews murdered. The extermination encountered armed resistance.
In August the Vilna ghetto was liquidated and 15,000 Jews murdered.
In Glebokie, some 5,000 Jews were burned [to death].
In the Kresy Wschodnie [eastern borderlands], almost all the Jews have been murdered.
During the first ten days of September, a mass extermination was carried out in the Krakow ara: after a brief armed struggle, 5,000 of the Jews of Tarnow were exterminated; among them the children, who had been rounded up into a building that was then blown up (September 2 - 3). 3,000 Jews were murdered in Rzeszow; a similar number in Przemysl; in Bochnia, 8,000. The last 500 were murdered by shooting, on September 8, 1943.
In the Krakow area, ony 14,000 Jews remained in [the] Plaszow [camp] and 2,000 in the Szebnie camp, of whom 1,000 were murdered in the forest on September 23, 1943. On October 24 and 26, some 2,000 or 3,000 inmates of the Lvov camps were murdered on the spot or in the environs of the city.
The ghetto of Zaglebie Dabrowskie in Bedzin was liquidated on August 2, 1943. Some 60,000 Jews died in the gas chambers of Auschwitz, with some 1,700 remaining alive.
Wolinski went back and reviewed the liquidation of the Lublin camps, the murder of 40,000 Jews, during the first ten days of November. In Budzyn, the sole remaining camp of the Lublin area, 2,000 to 3,000 Jews remained alive.
W. noted that the Lodz ghetto, with 100,000 Jews, was slated for liquidation on November 20.
W. details the legal [?] Jewish population concentrations in Poland [as of] the end of November 1943, based on 267,000 people: Lvov, Boryslaw, Budzyn, Plaszow, Szebnie, Pustkow, Mielec, Bedzin, Czestochowa, Piotrkow, Kielce, Starachowice, Radom, Swiety Krzyz, Skarzysko - Kamienna, Lodz, Slask (Silesia), and the Jews living in the forests, among Poles, in small factories, and various labor camps.
* This file also holds an additional copy of the same document with different pagination. At the top is the date Nov. 27 1943. Source of the copy: Holdings Registry file No. 28469.
6) December 20, 1943 [Report No. 4; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 20255]
W. warns about a Gestapo agent in the Saska Kempa neighborhood of Warsaw.
7) December 22, 1943 [Report No. 3; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 20255]
[The] Sobibor [camp]: On October 14, 1943, some 600 Jews fell upon the Germans [i.e. camp staff], killed 11 Gestapo staff and several SS troops, wounded more than ten, and escaped into the surrounding forests. Two hundred of those who escaped were killed by mines, sixty were murdered by the Germans. The camp remained empty of Jews.
8) January 3, 1944 [Report No. 5; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 20255]
Since the Radom ghetto was relocated to Szkolna Street, the camp’s regime has become harsher, possibly in preparation for its liquidation.
On November 18 -19, 1943, the Jews of Lvov were exterminated while at their labor camps. The executioners encountered armed resistance: more than ten Germans were killed, dozens were wounded; allthe Jews were killed, and the wounded were buried alive.
In November - December, Jews from Italy were deported to the former area of the Warsaw ghetto; most of them were killed by a company of Lithuanians.
In Budzyn, the edicts are multiplying and the isolation is increasing. There are signs of growing disquiet and feverish rescue efforts.
The suggestion to lobby the German authorities to send the Jews overseas in an exchange of POWs or hostages testifies to an unrealistic approach to what was going on outside.
New deportations (presently: 9,000 individuals) continue to arrive at the Skarzysko camp (that until now had 6,000 Jews). In ceaseless Selektions, people are sent to the death camps. The camp is almost unreacheable and severely cut off from the world.
The Bergen camp (near Hannover) has been liquidated; its Jews were sent to [the] Auschwitz [camp].
9) January 11, 1944 [Report No. 6; Source listed as Holdings Registry files No. 11267 and 20255]
In Lodz there’s a food crisis and severe health situation. Childbirth is punishable by imprisonment. The “natural” mortality rate is high. The elderly, women, and children are taken to extermination in deportations of 500 people. In order to trim the ghetto’s population down to 80,000, twenty thousand people will be deported by January 10, 1944. From time to time, Jews are hanged in order to spread terror.
September 1, 1943: One thousand Jews working in [? illegible] near Lodz were taken by train in the direction of Kolo, apparently for extermination.
Krakow: The Jewish camp at Biezanow, Julag No. 3, was liquidated on November 14, 1943. Sixty individuals were shot to death, those who remained alive were transported to [the] Plaszow [camp]. The same fate awaited the camp in Wola Duchacka, Julag No. 1, on November 16. Those fit to work were sent to Plaszow, and several dozens were shot to death. At Plaszow a Selektion was conducted for reorganization, and on November 16 some 4,000 Jews were transferred to munitions plants in Skarzysko, Pionki, Starachowice, Czestochowa, Auschwitz, and the Buna factories.
The changes observed in Krakow validate that large populations of Jews were being created in Plaszow and Skarzysko.
The Jews from Majdanek were murdered in the area of Krynica near Lublin, and their bodies were incinerated on the spot.
W. describes the liquidation of [the Janowska] camp in Lvov in late October 1943; during the Aktion, that took place on Woczkowska Street, some 2,500 Jews were taken in trucks and in the process many were shot on the spot. Dozens of vehicles returned with no passengers but full of clothing.
In the area of Bieniakon [Benyakoni] in the Vilna district, gangs of Jews circulated among the villages and stole food, clothing, and shoes. Those who resisted [them] were murdered.
10) January 25, 1944 [Report No. 5; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
120 troops of the Brygada Smierci (“The Death Brigade”) who buried the victims of the Lvov camp’s liquidation in October 1943, were to have been shot upon completion of their task. On the previous evening they killed 8 Gestapo staff and escaped.
After the Lvov camps were liquidated, two large labor camp remained in Eastern Galicia: in Boryslaw and Drogobych, with 1,200 inmates in each.
The Radom ghetto has been turned into a labor camp. In recent days, warnings have been received about the impending liquidation of Jewish population concentrations in Czestochowa, Radom, and Piotrkow.
Warsaw: In the area of the former ghetto, several German companies and some 20 Polish companies are working. The workers -- Poles, prisoners of the Germans, and Jews from Greece, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and other places -- have come into the area equipped with permits. Following the new deportations, the number of Jews rose to 12,000. Polish youths are circulating in the area of the ghetto, apparently functioning as a secret service force. An SS officer said that presently Italian Jews are being exterminated with sweet gas [sic] Wolinski is reviewing the construction work there and investigating the contents of the rumors.
Piotrkow: As of the end of December 1943, there are 1,800 Jews in the sawmill and the glass factory. According to information received from a railroad engineer, they received considerable quantities of canned meat and canned milk from the American Red Cross.
Regarding Ankara: German army officials in France are threatening to transport to Poland 10,000 Jews originating in Turkey, the registration of whose Turkish citizenship had not been arranged. It is estimated that since the start of the war, the number of Jews in France has fallen to 120,000. Ankara is also interested in the fate of Greek Jewry, that was threatened in the same manner.
11) February 7, 1944 [Report No. 8; Source listed as Holdings Registry files No. 11267 and 20255]
Krakow district: There are some 8.500 individuals in the camps in Plaszow. There are 600 persons in Pustkow near Debica. Some 2,000 persons are working in Krakow in the following locations: Kabel, a factory producing enamel - coated ware, a warehouse for communications equipment (Nachrichtengeraetelager), and airfield.
After the liquidations, work crews remained to take care of the former Jewish neighborhoods in Bochnia, Tarnow, Szebnie, Rzeszow, and Przemysl. In all the territory of the district there are approx. 14,000 Jews, 60% of them males. Subsistence conditions in Plaszow are exceptionally harsh. Camp inmates work in manufacturing workshops for the army or the construction trade; food rations are scanty, and the mortality rate is high.
During the first half of November 1943, the camp of Jews in Szebnie, near Jaslo. Some 3,000 Jews were transported to Auschwitz, to the ersatz rubber [manufacturing] plant.
The [labor] camp at Skarzysko was divided into three sections: Camp [“Werk”] A, with offices and manufacturing of shell casings for light weapons; Camp B, manufacturing rockets and cartridges, and Camp C, a punishment camp. The 6,000 Jewish workers, most of them having come from that [geographic] area, had reasonable conditions. Wolinski reviews the work conditions, details the food rations and their cost, and explains the guard arrangements. Typhus reigns in the camp. The sickest patients and the weak are put to death. The connection with “Werham” [? sic] consists of joint bathing on a weekly basis. Half a year ago, a deportation arrived with 1,500 persons from [the] Majdanek [camp]; three weeks ago, a deportation arrived from Krakow with 2,000 persons.
Warsaw: When the burnt - out buildings were being razed, a bunker was discovered with 10 - 20 people in it. They were killed on the spot. On two occasions, people who had been hiding in bunkers that were discovered fell in offering resistance [lit., battle]. Wolinski quotes information from [the bulletin] inf. ZOR: in a manhunt conducted by the Germans, one of the gangs of robbers made up of Jews, Poles, Italians, and Bolsheviks in the village of Jeziorka, who had burned ten farms in the Warsaw area, ten [gang members] were apprehended and the rest escaped.
Wolinski reports on acts of robbery and murder in the Lublin area carried out by cells of the PPR [Polska Partia Robotnicza; Polish Worker’s Party; the Communist party] whose members were local [Poles], Jews, and escaped Soviet POWs. In the Piotrkow council’s territory, in the forested areas of Skrzynice and Chmiel, a mixed gang of Bolsheviks, Jews, and local peasants, who infiltrate the Piaski council area. These gangs recently got into confrontation with the BCH [Bataliony Chlopskie; Peasants’ Batallions] near the villages of Majdan, Kozice Gorne, and Kozice Dolne.
12) February 22, 1944 [Report No. 9; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
In Warsaw there’s an appreciable rise in incidents of blackmailing Jews. Wolinski writes: Murder of blackmail victims is rare; those who are turned in are jailed for brief periods.
In Lithuania and the Vilna area the Germans are erasing the evidence of extermination; victims’ bodies are being exhumed and incinerated. This is being done in mid - December at the Ninth Fort near Kaunas (Kovno).
Ponary: On the night of December 18 - 19, 1943, A group of 30 - 40 Jews exhumed bodies from a [mass] grave and incinerated them. After their work was done, all the group were shot to death.
13) March 7, 1944 [Report No. 10; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Vilna: The ghetto on Subocz Street has been liquidated. Some of the Jews succeeded in escaping to Sweden by fishing boats. 500 remained alive -- furriers, who were located at the [former] “Electrat” factory, working at the Kailis furriers and in K.P/Ost/562. In December 1943 the S.D. took several of the workers from K.P/Ost/562 to extermination sites in Ponary, where crematoria are [being] built.
Lvov: The deportation of Jews who were in hiding is continuing. At the conclusion of the fires, several groups who had been in hiding were discovered; some of them offered resistance.
The Budzyn camp: A small group was sent to [the] Krasnik [camp], the remainder were transferred to barracks buildings beside the factory plants. The conditions have been severely downgraded; the inmates, who work at harsh labor, know that their days are numbered.
Czestochowa: The conditions of the HASAG workers are harsh; they fear immediate extermination. At the end of February, several Selektions were conducted and 800 people arrived from [the] Plaszow [camp].
Reports of the liquidation of the remains of camps in Sosnowiec, in Srodula, and in Kamionka -- there were 1,700 people [there].
The Starachowice camp apparently went over to the army[‘s control]; physicians were brought in and the food rations increased.
In Skarzysko the mortality rate is high; there is [suffering from] cold, hunger, and diseases.
Auschwitz: Wolinsky sends detailed information on the number of inmates in the camp (according to their place of origin) and on the transports exterminated there in January 1944.
14) March 21, 1944 [Report No. 11; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Warsaw: Wolinski reports that following an informer’s tip - off, the bunker on Grojecka Street was liquidated and the 37 people hiding there were murdered, among them individuals of prominence. * Lately there has been an upsurge in incidents of blackmailing and informing.
The Budzyn and Krasnik camps have been sealed off hermetically and are about to be liquidated or have the inmates transported. The situation in them is harsh.
14*) March 7, 1944; among those murdered were Emanuel Ringelblum, his wife and son.
15) April 1, 1944 [Report No. 12; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
The Plaszow camp is experiencing an increased pace of building, apparently in anticipation of absorbing [the population of] a camp from Auschwitz. The conditions in the Jewish branch, in which there are 8,500 Jews, are better than those in the Polish branch, as Wolinski assesses them (according to meals, prices, release from work).
[Former] Warsaw [ghetto]: Jews at forced labor are hauling wood for incinerating corpses, and clearing rubble. Some are from the Generalgouvernement (mainly from Zaglembie Dabrowskie), the rest from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Greece. Every day corpses are incinerated because of the high mortality rate. Several weeks ago, there was rampant typhus; the sick were put to death en masse. Jews that were hiding in underground bunkers were killed with flamethrowers. Trains from Lublin arrived in Warsaw laden with the furniture and clothing of Jews who had been killed.
Radio Swit informs Italian Jewry on the inescapable fate awaiting them in the East.
The new Hungarian Minister of Agriculture announces the uprooting of approx. one million of Hungarian Jewry.* Upon the Germans’ entry into Hungary, they commenced with the deportation of 50,000 Polish Jews who had fled to that country, many of them fighters from the Warsaw ghetto.
15*) Wolinski corrects: There are 600,000 Jews in Hungary, one - third of them in Budapest.
16) April 1, 1944 [Report No. 12; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Plaszow: Jews from other camps are being transported to the camp. The main camp has 10,00 Jews. Besides [Plaszow], there are Jews in the enamel factory in Zablocie -- there are 1,500 people working there; 300 in the airfield, 200 in the communications devices warehouse: altogether 12,000 people. All the 200 children in the camp have been isolated; there’s suspicion that they will be exterminated.
Mielec: 2,000 Jews work in the aircraft factory.
Budzyn: sorting and packing is being carried out in the camp, in advance of relocation.
Warsaw: April 7, 1944 - During the siege of “downtown” Zoliborz, approx. 75 Jewish men and 30 Jewish women were arrested.
Auschwitz: During the first half of February, 7,000 Jews from Italy, Denmark, and France were exterminated in the gas chambers.
On March 15, 1944, 4,000 Jews from Terezin (Theresienstadt) were put to death by gas. 280 Jewish women underwent severe [medical] experimentations related to artificial insemination. The first transports of Hungarian Jews arrived.
The Jews of M. Konskie [?sic] were killed. A few are hiding in the forests. 2,000 of the 5,000 inmates in the Blizyn labor camp are Jews.
On March 27, 1944, 27 Jews were buried alive in [the] cemetery in Lublin.
In Lancut - in Okop the Germans burned all the corpses of Jews who had ever been killed there.
17) April 27, 1944 [Report No. 14; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
This report presents, at length, Polish society as standing firmly at the side of the persecuted Jews -- and those who rise up in resistance - and against the German crimes, and discusses the international community’s relating to the Holocaust of the Jews. Among the content:
“On April 4, Sir [Anthony] Eden addressed the Lower House [of Parliament] regarding the question of antisemitism in the Polish army, and stated that many Jews desert it for the British army.” According to Wolinski, Polish military courts in Scotland imposed prison sentences on 30 Polish [army] deserters of Jewish origin. The soldiers cited antisemitism on the part of Polish officers. Secretary Loew rejected this claim in the Lower House and declared that “no government among the Allies ever did as much for the Jews as has Poland’s.” Present at the discussion were [Isaac - Ignacy] Schwarzbart and [Emanuel] Szerer, members of the National Council [Rada Narodowa; R. N.], and [Anszel] Reiss of the Jewish Agency.
18) May 11, 1944 [Report No. 15; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Lodz: There are 80,000 people in the ghetto, all working. Several hundred have been transferred to the Skarzysko, Kielce, and Czestochowa camps.
As of mid - April 1944, there are 7,000 people in Skarzysko, 5,000 in Starachowice, and 3,000 in Pionki.
Budzyn: The camp is being dismantled; part of its inmate population was sent to Mielec, where there are already over two thousand Jews.
The Jewish cemetery in Siedlce, where the Germans killed 1,000 Jews a year ago, is now surrounded by guard towers equipped with machine guns and searchlights. The activity of exhuming bodies and burning them is continuing there.
In the Wola Duchacka concentration camp near Krakow, the Germans have been planning a crematorium installation for some time, but none of the companies they’ve contacted has agreed to undertake the work.
In February 200 Jewish soldiers from the Hungarian army were liquidated in [the] Majdanek [camp].
19) May 22, 1944 [Report No. 16; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Wolinski describes instances of Jews in hiding being killed in Warsaw and Radosc in April, and describes isolated instances in which those in hiding are sent to the Auschwitz camp (rather than being shot on the spot).
Budzyn: Half of the Jews [there] have already been sent to Plasow, Mielec, and Wieliczka. The rest are being sent now.
According to rumors: in the aircraft industry in Biala Podlaska, there is hermetically sealed Jewish camp with 1,000 inmates.
In the Jewish camp in Skarzysko, there are 10,000 inmates.
In Zaslaw near Sanok, where 5,500 Jews were exterminated, the Gestapo is engaged in construction, apparently a new torture facility for Hungarian Jews or a crematorium for obliterating the evidence of previous killings.
Treblinka (1): In late April, 130 Jew were shot in the camp; now there are some 350 Poles (mostly men) and an unknown number of Jews. A typhus epidemic is taking its toll. At the camp in the Milewek farm, Jews work by day and at night are quartered with families on the farm who threaten them with death in the event of an escape.
Hanaczow (now Ganachevka): On April 10, 1944, the village was attacked by a band of 1,500 Ukrainians. Local Polish defenders were reinforced by Jews from the forests, and the village was saved.
Wolinski reviews articles in the Polish [underground] press, on the anniverary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, and accuses part of the leftist press for printing false reports.
20) May 30, 1944 [Report No. 17; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
In this report, Wolinski reviews hostile attitudes towards the Armia Krajowa, towards Jews, and towards the Jewish Fighting Organization [Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB] in the newspaper of the rightwing National Armed Forces [Narodowe Sily Zbrojne; NSZ],* and from the left, toward the Polish government - in - exile and the Polish army (that was charged with antisemitism) in the broadcasts of Radio Moscow.
Wolinski then quotes from the praises spoken by Polish Prime Minister [in exile] Mikolajczyk about the “courageous” cooperation between the Polish underground and the Jewish underground (upon the anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising); taken from BBC broadcasts.
* An article in the organ “Nasz Czyn” (Our Role), No. 8, dated April 23, 1944.
21) June 6, 1944 [Report No. 18; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Budzyn: The liquidation of the Jewish labor camp, beginning in February, was completed on approx. May 22. The Henkl workshops with their work force were transferred to Mielec. The remaining inmates were transferred to Skarzysko, Wieliczka, and Plaszow. The camp’s liquidation did not take on the proportions of a slaughter as had been the case in the Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Lublin camps in November . There were many group escape attempts (some of them armed). On February 6, the Germans announced a general “bathing;” the fear of liquidation resulted in a mass escape, during which dozens [of inmates] were shot. At the start of the liquidation, the camp had 3,000 inmates.
Lodz: In the months January through March the number of Jews dropped from 80,000 to 60,000 due to transports; these went to the Jewish camp in Szarzysko. Lodz Jews were in contact with the PPR through German intermediaries. In January, the German intermediary, a member of the Nazi party from Wroclaw, was arrested.
From a personal testimony from Treblinka, it is learned that Jews with foreign [i.e. neutral] nationalities who were presumably being diverted to the Bergen camp near Hannover and had been quartered in Warsaw hotels, were sent to Treblinka.
Attached: a letter from Skarzysko and the essay, “A year in Treblinka.”*
21*) This essay was written by Jakow - Ya’akov Wiernik, one of the survivors of the Treblinka uprising. The text was sent to London in May 1944. For details, see Collections file No. 75 in the Ghetto Fighters’ House archives.
22) June 13, 1944 [Report No. 19; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
Auschwitz: Starting on May 15, large transports of Jews from Hungary began arriving. Wolinski describes the extermination process. In his words, over 100,000 of them were killed.
Vilna: On March 27, 1944, the last of Vilna’s Jews were killed (craftsmen; mostly furriers).
23) June 6, 1944 [Report No. 20; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]*
Grot,** the deputy commander of the Wlodzimierz region, said that prior to the ghetto’s final liquidation, the Jews were offered weapons for defense. According to Wolinski, the Jews had not decided on self - defense and demanded that they be protected or at least that they be sent [weapons] instructors.
After organizing in groups of Oliwa, Jews reported to them who had been in hiding or had wandered from place to place and worked as itinerant craftsmen (particularly tailors). Towards the breaking of the German siege, the Jews were released in order to allow them to hide.
23*) Per source text: “NOT FOR PUBLICATION”
23**) Grot was the alias of Stefan Rowecki, commander of the "Union For Armed Struggle" [ZWZ; Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej] the military arm of the Polska Podziemna [Poland underground].
24) June 6, 1944 [Report No. 21; Source listed as Holdings Registry file No. 11267]
[British Foreign Secretary] Eden expressed his approval for the pardon granted by the president of the Polish Republic to the Jewish soldiers who deserted the Polish army in Scotland (May 20, 1944).
Wolinski notes that in the first session of Committee for the Rescue of the Jewish Population in Poland (Rada do Spraw Ratowania Ludnosci Zydowsciej w Polsce), the Jews in Poland elected Adam Ciolkosz as chairman, [Anszel] Reiss as vice - chairman and E[manuel] Szerer as main secretary. The [government] minister Banaczyk praised Polish aid to Jews and asked that [the phenomenon of] Jewish soldiers “voluntarily leaving” the Polish army would not hamper this.
Hungary: Jewish property has been listed, limits imposed on holding Jewish capital, and in Budapest some 18,000 Jewish shops (of 40,000) were closed. The Minister of Commerce and Minister of the Interior called for a war against the Jews (May 16, 1944).
In Carpathorus, the entire population of Munkacs (now Mukachevo) and Ungvar (now Uzhgorod) have been interned in concentration camps. 300,000 Jews were arrested and interned, without regard for age or sex.